A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Lorin W. AndersonB> This revision of Blooms taxonomy is designed to help teachers understand and implement standards-based curriculums. Cognitive psychologists, curriculum specialists, teacher educators, and researchers have developed a two-dimensional framework, focusing on knowledge and cognitive processes. In combination, these two define what students are expected tolearn in school. Like no other text, it explores curriculums from three unique perspectives-cognitive psychologists (learning emphasis), curriculum specialists and teacher educators (C&I emphasis), and measurement and assessment experts (assessment emphasis). This revisited framework allows you to connect learning in all areas of curriculum. Educators, or others interested in Educational Psychology or Educational Methods for grades K-12.
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
The authors of the revised taxonomy underscore this dynamism, using verbs and gerunds to label their categories and subcategories rather than the nouns of the original taxonomy. The cognitive process dimension represents a continuum of increasing cognitive complexity—from remember to create. Anderson and Krathwohl identify 19 specific cognitive processes that further clarify the bounds of the six categories Table 1. Table 1. The Cognitive Process Dimension — categories, cognitive processes and alternative names.
Each level is conceptually different. The six levels are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. These levels can be helpful in developing learning outcomes because certain verbs are particularly appropriate at each level and not appropriate at other levels though some verbs are useful at multiple levels. A student might list presidents or proteins or participles to demonstrate that they remember something they learned, but generating a list does not demonstrate for example that the student is capable of evaluating the contribution of multiple presidents to American politics or explaining protein folding or distinguishing between active and passive participles. Definition: retrieve, recall, or recognize relevant knowledge from long-term memory e. Appropriate learning outcome verbs for this level include: cite, define, describe, identify, label, list, match, name, outline, quote, recall, report, reproduce, retrieve, show, state, tabulate, and tell.
In , Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification system for levels of cognitive skills and learning behavior.
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Print Version. Further Information. The above graphic is released under a Creative Commons Attribution license. The framework elaborated by Bloom and his collaborators consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories. This chapter is not available in the online version of the book, but Tools for Teaching is available in the CFT Library. The authors of the revised taxonomy underscore this dynamism, using verbs and gerunds to label their categories and subcategories rather than the nouns of the original taxonomy.