"Non-Germans" under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939-1945 by Diemut MajerUnder the legal and administrative system of Nazi Germany, people categorized as Fremdvölkische (literally, “foreign people”) were subject to special laws that restricted their rights, limited their protection under the law, and exposed them to extraordinary legal sanctions and brutal, extralegal police actions. These special laws, one of the central constitutional principles of the Third Reich, applied to anyone perceived as different or racially inferior, whether German citizens or not.
“Non-Germans” under the Third Reich traces the establishment and evolution of these laws from the beginnings of the Third Reich through the administration of annexed and occupied eastern territories during the war. Drawing extensively on German archival sources as well as on previously unexplored material from Poland and elsewhere in eastern Europe, the book shows with chilling detail how the National Socialist government maintained a superficial legal continuity with the Weimar Republic while expanding the legal definition of Fremdvölkische, to untimately give itself legal sanction for the actions undertaken in the Holocaust. Replete with revealing quotations from secret decrees, instructions, orders, and reports, this major work of scholarship offers a sobering assessment of the theory and practice of law in Nazi Germany.
Published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Secret WW2 History - Minorities in the German Army
“Non-Germans” under the Third Reich
Diemut Majer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Vlkisch Inequality and the German Beamter. In "Non-Germans under the Third Reich" , Diemut Majer demonstrates with thorough research and in painstaking detail the legal means by which nationality, race, and the National Socialist ideal were integrated into the structure of German society and law. National Socialism's entire thinking and mode of expression Special law allowed for flexibility, and thus could be applied either strictly to Jews, or, as became evident as the regime expanded, to other groups p.
Diemut Majer. Under the legal and administrative system of Nazi Germany, people categorized as Fremdvolkische literally, strange people were subject to special laws that restricted their rights, limited their protection under the law, and exposed them to extraordinary legal sanctions and brutal, extralegal police actions. These special laws, one of the central constitutional principles of the Third Reich, applied to Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, non-Europeans: anyone perceived as different or racially inferior, whether German citizens or not. Drawing extensively on German archival sources as well as on previously unexplored material from Poland and elsewhere in eastern Europe, Majer shows with chilling detail how the National Socialist government maintained a superficial legal continuity from the Weimar Republic while expanding the legal definition of Fremdvolkische, ultimately giving itself legal sanction for the Holocaust. Replete with revealing quotations from secret decrees, instructions, orders and reports, this major work of scholarship offers a sobering assessment of the theory and practice of law in Nazi Germany.
Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. Hindenburg died on 2 August and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression , the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Using deficit spending , the regime undertook extensive public works, including the construction of Autobahnen motorways. The return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity.
Hitler and the Third Reich
Hans Massaquoi: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler was born and raised in Austria-Hungary, was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I, and began to rise to prominence in German politics with his vitriolic speeches promoting German nationalism, anti-semitism, and anti-communism. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the effective abandonment of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germans — actions that gave him significant popular support. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on September 1, , invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany.
One group of victims who have yet to be publicly memorialised is black Germans. All those voices need to be heard, not only for the sake of the survivors, but because we need to see how varied the expressions of Nazi racism were if we are to understand the lessons of the Holocaust for today. When Hitler came to power in , there were understood to have been some thousands of black people living in Germany — they were never counted and estimates vary widely. They were networked across Germany and abroad by ties of family and association and some were active in communist and anti-racist organisations. Among the first acts of the Nazi regime was the suppression of black political activism. There were also to children fathered by French colonial soldiers — many, though not all, African — when the French army occupied the Rhineland as part of the peace settlement after