Crime and Punishment in Latin America: Law and Society Since Late Colonial Times by Ricardo D. Salvatore
This Colonial Life: Crime and Punishment
History of criminal justice
The Condemned. The surviving court records from the New England area offer a glimpse of what crimes were being committed and punished during the colonial period. From to ninety-nine people were charged with drunkenness in Massachusetts, seventy-three of whom received a fine. For the fifty charged with theft, the most common punishment was whipping. About half of the twenty-two charged with fornication were whipped, while nineteen of the twenty-two servants charged with running away were whipped.
Crimes included murder, theft and treason but also heresy, crimes against nature and even sexual incontinence, in Mexico. In the colonial era, all over New Spain, punishments were severe. The condemned had no rights, and punishments, including executions, were swiftly carried out. In some cases, the guilty person was apprehended and executed by hanging or firing squad the same day. The highest crimes were murder and treason, both of which merited death by firing squad or public hanging. Murders there were. Even in a population of under 1 million, there were crimes of passion.
Here's a project to remember what they endured. from Crimes and Punishment in Colonial America. In Colonial America the court structure was quite different.
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Marylander Edward Erbery called members of the colony's proprietary assembly "rogues and puppies"; he was tied to an apple tree and received thirty-nine lashes. Jacob Lumbrozo, a Maryland Jew who suggested Christ's miracles were done by "magic," was imprisoned indefinitely, escaping execution only by the governor's pardon. Rebecca Fowler was accused of using witchcraft to cause her Calvert County neighbors to feel "very much the worse;" she was hanged on October 9,
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Throughout the history of criminal justice , evolving forms of punishment , added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs , political ideals, and economic conditions. Primates often have notions of fairness and sharing, with violations punished by exclusion or banishment from social groups. In human history, prior to agriculture, more nomadic cultures had systems of punishment for behavior or resistance, including those developed by the Huns throughout Mongolia. With the development of agriculture, which led to more closely populated cities and cultures and behavior to address fears of persons taking advantage of or causing harm to others, more formal systems of punishment for crimes developed, independently around the world, or based upon other cultures, including those developed in the early Babylonian laws of Hammurabi and the Hammurabic Code. Law enforcement in Ancient China was carried out by "prefects". The notion of a "prefect" in China has existed for thousands of years.