Nelson Mandela: A Biography by Martin Meredith
I have this theory – I know it is not a good theory – but here it is anyway!
We are all entitled to our own opinions!
All over the world there is - racism – racism between the rich and the poor, nationalities, boundaries etc.
But for one or other reason the South Africa’s was classified as the biggest Racism countries that ever existed – maybe the statement is not true!
You see it on the news every day – in movies – heck even on documentaries
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One day long – long ago a baby boy was born: →
Born Rolihlahla Mandela 18 July 1918
Died 5 December 2013 (aged 95)
Resting place Mandela Graveyard
Mandela began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University College of Fort Hare but did not complete the degree there as he was expelled for joining in a student protest. “Naughty boy it seems”
Upon his return to the Great Place at Mqhekezweni the King was furious and said if he didn’t return to Fort Hare he would arrange wives for him and his cousin Justice. They ran away to Johannesburg instead, arriving there in 1941.
He completed his BA through the University of South Africa and went back to Fort Hare for his graduation in 1943.
Meanwhile; he began studying for an LLB at the University of the Witwatersrand. By his own admission he was a poor student. He only started studying again through the University of London after his imprisonment in 1962 but also did not complete that degree.
A two-year diploma in law on top of his BA allowed Mandela to practise law, and in August 1952 he and Oliver Tambo established South Africa’s first black law firm, Mandela & Tambo.
Mandela, while increasingly politically involved from 1942, only joined the African National Congress in 1944 when he helped to form the ANC Youth League (ANCYL).
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The Treason Trial
He became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. After the Afrikaner minority government of the National Partyestablished apartheid – a system of racial segregation that privileged whites – in 1948, he rose to prominence in the ANCs 1952 anti-apartheid Defiance Campaign, was appointed superintendent of the organisations Transvaal chapter and presided over the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the South African Communist Party (SACP). Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, leading asabotage campaign against the government. In 1962, he was arrested, convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the state, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial
One of Mandelas prisoner numbers.
Release from prison
Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release, which was granted in 1990 amid escalating civil strife. Mandela joined negotiations with President F. W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory and became South Africas first black president. He published his autobiography in 1995.
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It is in your hands – Mandela Day quote
He died at his home in Johannesburg on 5 December 2013.
To end this review – I have a huge respect for this man!
HE HAD A DREAM A BIG DREAM AND NEVER LET GO!
To the Author
And from me
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The life of Nelson Mandela
His negotiations in the early s with South African Pres. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in for their efforts. His father, the chief of the Madiba clan of the Xhosa -speaking Tembu people, died when Nelson was still young, and he was raised by Jongintaba, the regent of the Tembu. Although Nelson had a claim to the chieftainship, he renounced it in order to become a lawyer. Nelson Mandela died on December 5, , in Johannesburg. He was 95 years old. After his death was announced, his life was remembered and celebrated in South Africa as well as around the world.
His father was the principal councillor to the Acting Paramount Chief of the Thembu royal house. After receiving a primary education at a local mission school, where he was given the name Nelson, he was sent to the Clarkebury Boarding Institute for his Junior Certificate and then to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated. He was suspended from college for joining in a protest boycott, along with Oliver Tambo. He and his cousin Justice ran away to Johannesburg to avoid arranged marriages and for a short period he worked as a mine policeman. Despite his increasing political awareness and activities, Mr Mandela also had time for other things.
After becoming involved in the anti- apartheid movement in his 20s, Mandela joined the African National Congress in For 20 years, he directed a campaign of peaceful, nonviolent defiance against the South African government and its racist policies. Beginning in , Mandela spent 27 years in prison for political offenses. For generations to come, Mandela will be a source of inspiration for civil rights activists worldwide. Mandela's father, who was destined to be a chief, served as a counselor to tribal chiefs for several years, but lost both his title and fortune over a dispute with the local colonial magistrate. Mandela was only an infant at the time, and his father's loss of status forced his mother to move the family to Qunu, an even smaller village north of Mvezo.
Nelson Mandela’s Childhood and Education
The South African activist and former president Nelson Mandela helped bring an end to apartheid and has been a global advocate for human rights. His actions landed him in prison for nearly three decades and made him the face of the antiapartheid movement both within his country and internationally. After the death of his father in , 9-year-old Mandela—then known by his birth name, Rolihlahla—was adopted by Jongintaba Dalindyebo, a high-ranking Thembu regent who began grooming his young ward for a role within the tribal leadership. The first in his family to receive a formal education, Mandela completed his primary studies at a local missionary school. There, a teacher dubbed him Nelson as part of a common practice of giving African students English names.
In , when he was 12 years old, his father died and the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in Mqhekezweni 1. He completed his Junior Certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went on to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated. Mandela began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University College of Fort Hare but did not complete the degree there as he was expelled for joining in a student protest. They ran away to Johannesburg instead, arriving there in There he worked as a mine security officer and after meeting Walter Sisulu, an estate agent, he was introduced to Lazer Sidelsky. He then did his articles through a firm of attorneys — Witkin, Eidelman and Sidelsky. By his own admission he was a poor student and left the university in without graduating.